Programme of Work

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CJOS activities are guided by a programme of work approved by the sponsoring nations based upon the requests received by NATO, the CJOS member countries, and other entities. CJOS, an organization outside the NATO Command Structure, is open to requests for support by any organization. Requests received will be considered for inclusion in the programme of work based upon their alignment to CJOS interests and those of the sponsoring nations and NATO. The 2016-2017 CJOS Programme of Work is summarized below:

Multinational Capability Development Campaign (MCDC)
The Multinational Capability Development Campaign (MCDC) series is the follow-on to the Multinational Experiment (MNE) series initiated by United States Joint Forces Command in 2001. The first cycle started in 2013 and was designed to develop and introduce new capabilities to enhance the coalition force’s operational effectiveness in joint, interagency, multinational, and coalition operations. While it maintains the foundational blocks that made the MNE series successful, MCDC incorporates significant changes in scope, mission, and governance that improve responsiveness, agility, and relevance.
CJOS COE participates as key contributor and observer in three focus areas: Countering Hybrid Warfare, Countering Unmanned Autonomous Systems, and Joint and Combined Operations in and from Confined Waters. The MCDC 2015-2016 cycle topic is “Building and Maintaining Regional Security”; multinational and coalition partners having the ability to successfully plan and execute globally integrated efforts to build and maintain regional security. These partners must employ a comprehensive approach in areas where they have mutually direct and indirect national interests to prevent, deter, mitigate or respond to destabilizing events and activities.

Interoperability Technical Advisory Group (ITAG)
In response to the CUSFFC request for CJOS COE to contribute to improving interoperability in combined and joint operations, the COE, in coordination with USFFC, stood up the Interoperability Technical Advisory Group (ITAG). The working group, consisting of stakeholders such as USFFC N3, N6, N7, N8/9, NWDC, MARFORCOM, CNSL, CNAL, CSG-4, and STRIKFORNATO, meets bi-monthly to identify and close interoperability gaps across doctrine, lessons identified, training, capabilities and experimentation.  Most recently, the ITAG presented CUSFFC with nine interoperability gaps focused on MOC coalition operations, doctrinal differences, and increased coalition training in the FRTP.  The ITAG will now develop PoA&M to track the progress of recommended solutions to ensure the desired end-state is achieved.

NATO Mission Thread Concept Implementation
The NATO Federated Mission Networking Implementation Plan (NFIP), Vol I, identified the need for a mission thread-type approach.  The use of this methodology to establish consistent content and context for interoperability, training, planning and mission activities would enhance the effectiveness of future operations and inform FMN implementation.   As a result, this document called for the Military Committee to task the strategic commands to produce a NATO Mission Thread Capstone Concept.   This concept paper, developed in response to that tasking, is the result of significant analysis and several years of internal discussion within various NATO communities.
The NATO Mission Thread (NMT) Capstone Concept will provide a coherent definition of mission threads and detail the expected operational benefits of this common approach.   Furthermore, it will also address some general aspects of implementation in light of NATO’s level of ambition and in support of other broad key initiatives, such as the Readiness Action Plan.  Following the Concept endorsement an implementation phase, development of the Doctrine, Organization, Training, Standards will commence; require content contributions and participation in validation events for specific mission areas.

NATO Urbanization Concept
CJOS will deliver a NATO Conceptual Study on Urbanization to the NATO Military Authorities in accordance with IMSM-0543-2014 dated 28 November 2014.  The concept examines the impact of NATO military operations based on the potential crises and consequences of urbanization between now and 2035. This study will be linked to the NATO Defense Planning Process, Strategic Foresight Analysis, and Framework for Future Alliance Operations (FFAO) where urbanization is one of the key topic areas.  In September 2016, CJOS will provide subject matter experts to support the Urbanization Experiment that will be conducted at the Modeling and Simulation (M&S) COE, Italy.

E-3A ‘Sentry’ Airborne Warning & Control Systems (AWACS) Follow-on:
NATO operates a fleet of Boeing E-3A ‘Sentry’ Airborne Warning & Control System (AWACS) aircraft, which provides the Alliance with near real-time airborne command and control (C2), air and maritime surveil-lance and battle-space management capability. CJOS will provide input and advice to the NMA in accordance with IMSW-0028-2015 dated 30 January 2015 on the future requirements for any follow-on to the E-3A AWACS capabilities; more generically an Air Command and Control/Battle Management and Surveillance Capability for the 2035+ timeframe.  Several products are expected and the COEs are expected to contribute studies on viable conceptual solutions.

Support to Joint Allied Lessons Learned Command
CJOS COE is working with NATO Supreme Allied Command Transformation in providing support to Joint Allied Lessons Learned Command (JALLC) on their analysis projects.  SACT is collecting Analysis Requirements for the JALLC in Lisbon on a semi-annual basis and CJOS will provide assistance to JALLC in conducting analysis reviews in support of their Programme of Work.

NATO Integrated Air and Missile Defense C2 Architecture
The Allied Joint Publication (AJP-3.3.1) inadequately describes the coordination and synchronization required between Joint Force Air Component (JFAC)/Air Defense Component (ADC) and surface forces that are responsible for fires within a designated Area of Operation (AOO); maintaining control of air and missile defense forces (i.e. surface forces retaining Operational Control (OPCON) and Tactical Control (TACON), and with naval Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) forces, AEGIS ashore).  Similarly, AJP-3.3.1 briefly describes the establishment of air defense regions and sectors to enhance decentralized control.  Unfortunately the publication doesn’t significantly identify how and why they are created; what they are; and their roles and responsibilities.

Support to Capability Requirement Review 2016 Planning Process
CJOS will provide Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) for the planning phases of the Capability Requirement Review (CRR16).  This effort will contribute in identifying NATO/Allies capabilities, and discovering shortfalls preventing the fulfillment of NATO Level of Ambition (LoA).

COE Strategic Foresight Analysis
COEs will be requested to support development of the Strategic Foresight Analysis (SFA) 2017 report.  The SFA writing process is expected to start in the second half of 2016.  Final product will be developed in 2017 and will be available to the public.  COEs will be asked to provide research papers in their respective areas related with the existing SFA and emerging trends. The centres will be invited to attend two to three SFA workshops and provide comments on draft documents.

Framework for Future Alliance Operations (FFAO)
The FFAO builds upon and interprets the outcomes of the Strategic Foresight Analysis (SFA) that was completed and published by Allied Command Transformation (ACT) in late 2013.  Where the SFA identified key trends and drivers that could influence the future security environment, the FFAO extracts the military implications of those inputs and facilities a forecast of how those implications may need to be addressed by NATO forces in the future.  This effort will continue to inform the NATO Defence Planning Process, allowing long-lead capabilities to be identified, and potentially, scheduled for acquisition.  CJOS has contributed to both the SFA and FFAO development by providing subject matter expertise, advice and drafting/editing services.

Exercise TRIDENT JUNCTURE 16 (TRJE16) is an operational level headquarters training exercise designed to practice coordination between NATO Command Structure (NCS) and NATO Force Structure (NFS); conducted as part of the evaluation and certification process for Allied Joint Force Command – Naples (JFC-Naples).  CJOS COE will provide a subject matter expert to support the maritime element of the exercise.

Maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Improvement
The Joint Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (JISR) branch of Allied Command Transformation (ACT) has been focused on Maritime ISR processes and capabilities to support NATO maritime future operations.  Much of the observation and analysis has been on the International Security Assistance Force
(ISAF).  Over the recent past, maritime operations have received less attention and the lessons learned may not be incorporated into the ISR processes and capabilities to support maritime operations.  As a Programme of Work item requested form ACT, CJOS COE is reviewing operational reporting, lessons learned and after action reports from NATO Operations such as Operation Unified Protector (OUP) and Operation Active Endeavor
(OAE) in order to determine maritime ISR shortfalls.  Along with surveying participating commands and personnel and analyzing future capability requirements, this study will allow CJOS COE to make recommendations for improvements to NATO Maritime ISR.

Counter-Improvised Explosive Device in Maritime Environment
CJOS is providing support investigating Improvised Explosive Device (IED) threats and countermeasures in the maritime domain.  For CJOS, the goal is to identify capability shortfalls along the Doctrine, Organization, Training, Material, Personnel, Facilities (DOTMLPFI) spectrum and identify ways to mitigate these shortfalls.  For this purpose, CJOS will strive to identify ways to strengthen each of the three C-IED pillars: Prepare the Force; Attack the Network; Defeat the Device.

Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA)
CJOS, in cooperation with the Centre of Excellence for Operations in Confined and Shallow Waters (COE CSW) and the Turkish national Maritime Security Centre of Excellence (MARSEC), has undertaken a detailed study to examine how maritime situation awareness information sharing could be improved between entities on a global basis.  This study was conducted through a gap analysis and then the assembly of potential solutions/best practices that could be used to address the gaps.  Based on  EXTAC 790 and lessons learned from Operation OCEAN SHIELD (OOS) and OAE, the COEs will make efforts to revise the MSA Doctrine.

Theatre Anti-submarine Warfare (TASW)
During the 2012 Submarine Commanders Conference (SCC), Commander of Submarine Forces NATO
(COMSUBNATO) was tasked in by the Maritime Operations Working Group to develop an Alliance TASW concept.  A draft was approved by SCC in 2013 and presented to Maritime Operations Working Group
(MAROPSWG) in 2014.  The TASW concept is an operational level application for ASW.  The goal of TASW would be to eliminate the threat that adversarial submarines could bring into a theatre or operation.  CJOS COE support has been requested to review the TASW concept, develop a BI-SC arrangement and a MC concept.

Multinational Maritime Information Systems Interoperability Board (M2I2)
M2I2 is a U.S. led user’s forum for the Combined Enterprise Regional Information Exchange System
(CENTRIXS) Maritime.  M2I2 is the only coalition maritime governing body that enables C2, mission planning, situational awareness and information sharing/exchange for the U.S. and Coalition Partners.  M2I2 is a body consisting of those Countries and organizations that represent and support operational forces and provide technical, information assurance, requirements, and planning associated with Internet Protocol (IP) networks and associated services in the form of Operations and Planning applications.  It is recognized that M2I2 provides the forum for enhancing and addressing CENTRIXS Maritime operational interoperability, this is particularly relevant now given the operational environment of the future is perceived to be one of Coalitions, which are flexible in their constitution and unlikely to be constrained to regular Allied partners.

Joint Battlespace Management
Develop Joint Battle Space Management procedure which will adapt to joint procedures in order to ensure adaptive means and measures that enable the dynamic synchronization of activities in the coastal environment During several exercises it has turned  out to be a challenge to ensure the effective coordination and/ integration of all  elements of a joint force. Introducing long range anti-ship missiles with the capacity to fly over land has hampered coordination of different needs in the Battlespace area. There are existing systems used within major land operations, primarily synchronizing campaigns with land and air forces. However, in the maritime domain, and in a coastal and littoral environment it seems to be a lack of a well-functioning Battlespace Management tool as well as a common understanding of the importance of both inter and intra component coordination and synchronization. Battlespace Management in the maritime domain is often understood as water space management, but this is dealing with just one part of the battlespace volume.

Maritime Cyber Security
While Cyber Security has been recognized as an important concern all over the world, Cyber Security in the maritime domain has become a growing topic and being discussed by more and more organizations.  The possibility of a cyber-attack being directed towards a maritime operation is very likely, and the impact of that attack could be catastrophic.  Hence, cyber risks within the maritime domain need to be analyzed and evaluated to create a cultural awareness, to reexamine the priorities and method for safeguarding maritime critical infrastructure and improve the cyber resilience within the Maritime Domain.  Due to its potential consequences, continued cooperation and collaboration among different stakeholders, military and academia are a necessity to tackle those risks.   CJOS is working in cooperation with various stakeholders, military, and academia to identify measures that will significantly increase the resilience of the maritime domain.

NATO Maritime Operations Working Group (MAROPSWG)
Develops standardization in doctrine, tactics and tactical instructions and procedures in maritime operations to improve the effectiveness of NATO forces. The MAROPSWG is the largest Maritime Standardization Board Working Group and is responsible for a wide range of tactical publications. National Maritime Tactical Schools are strongly represented – mainly at the Naval Captain level. The MAROPSWG operates with four Sub-Groups: Heads of Delegation, Syndicate 1 – Under Water Warfare, Syndicate 2 – Above Water Warfare and Electronic Warfare, and Syndicate 3 – Maritime Communications and Information Exchange.  Together their focus is standardizing Maritime Operations by NATO Forces to include, but not be limited to Submarine Warfare, Anti-Submarine Warfare, Above Water Warfare, Tactical Communications, and maritime Electronic and Acoustic Warfare.  In support of MAROPSWG, CJOS COE is deeply committed in playing an active role providing WG Chairmanship and subject matter experts for the Syndicate Sub-Groups.

Amphibious Operations Working Group (AWG)
The Amphibious Operations Working Group addresses standardization objective areas within their four Panels: Operations, Publications, Communications, and Information Exchange Requirements Panel.  Together, their focus is standardizing Amphibious Doctrine, Techniques and Training Methods, Equipment for use in Amphibious Operations, Communications and Operational Intelligence, Support for Amphibious Operations, and Command and Control relationships.  Staffs from NATO nations and organizations deliver proposals for military standardization, including tactics, tactical instructions and procedures for employment of Amphibious Forces In response to NATO strategy, the group is also focusing on Non-Article V Operations.  As an independent, multinational source of innovative advice and expertise on maritime operations, CJOS COE is responsible with developing and promoting maritime concepts and doctrine is a natural and active element of the AWG.